6 MODSCAPES papers were presented at the

REGIONALISM, NATIONALISM & MODERN ARCHITECTURE International Conference

Porto: ESAP, October 25-27, 2018

Full-text available from: https://comum.rcaap.pt/handle/10400.26/2457
Cristina Pallini, 2018. “Modern Architecture in the (re)Making of History. Schools and Museums in Greece
in Regionalism, Nationalism & Modern Architecture. Proceedings. Edited by Jorge Cunha Pimentel, Alexandra Trevisan and Alexandra Cardoso. Porto: CEAA: 11-23. http://hdl.handle.net/10400.26/24581

Challenging the long-established idea of the Mediterranean as the cradle of modern architecture, this contribution argues that due consideration should be given to moments of profound change, thereby splitting the Mediterranean into its fragments. We may thus restore to its extraordinary cities the many and varied architectural traditions that were able to nurture and blend: the much-debated mediterraneità (Mediterraneity) turns out to be far less ‘monolithic’ in its expression.

Along this line of thoughts, schools and museums built in Greece from 1923 to the aftermath of WWII may well reveal the role of architecture, when called upon to express the founding values of a collective identity. The dialectic between tradition and innovation, eclecticism and modernism, uncovers its meaning case by case.

Vittoria Capresi, 2018. “White Cubism Reloaded. The reinterpretation of Libyan Vernacular Architecture as the Answer to how to build in the Colony”
in Regionalism, Nationalism & Modern Architecture. Proceedings. Edited by Jorge Cunha Pimentel, Alexandra Trevisan and Alexandra Cardoso. Porto: CEAA: 63-75. https://comum.rcaap.pt/handle/10400.26/24576

Which style for Libya, Italian colony during Fascism? The paper explores the theoretical debate on the colonial style, pointing out the diverse theoretical positions and the gap with the realisations in the colony at the beginning of the colonisation. From the mid of the 1930s the architecture in the colony take a particular direction and follow a certain style, which – beyond any Moorish or Arabisances – seem to consciously re-elaborate vernacular architecture. The concept of “cubism” is than explained, as probably the most interesting contribution to the architecture in the colony.

Maria Helena Maia and Alexandra Cardoso, 2018. “Nationalism and Rural Modernization. The Spanish Tagus Valley colonization villages in the context of Southern European inner colonization
in Regionalism, Nationalism & Modern Architecture. Proceedings. Edited by Jorge Cunha Pimentel, Alexandra Trevisan and Alexandra Cardoso. Porto: CEAA: 175-189. http://hdl.handle.net/10400.26/24577

Between 1945 and 1965, thirty-three new agricultural pueblos de colonización [colonization villages] were built in the Spanish Tagus Valley under the action of the Instituto Nacional de Colonización (INC: 1939-1971). Associated with works of hydraulic infrastructures and soil transformation for an intensive use of irrigated crops, these villages deeply shaped the rural landscape in the scope of an intentional modernization process of the countryside. However, this process also contributes to achieve the agrarian utopia of the authoritarian catholic and conservative policy of Franco’s regime. In addition, the changed status of the settler into a small landowner and the notions imported from more urban context reflected in schemes of rural planning were crucial in order to avoid the exodus towards the city. This paper aims to explore the patterns used in the conception of the pueblos and their relation with national identity building process in the context of similar processes occurred in the Southern Europe. The relation between modernity and traditional references, both in urban shape and architectural design, will be explored, with special attention to the Civic Centre, a mandatory requirement of the pueblo’s programme, functioning as the core of the urban fabric. Its composition and facilities architectonic options will be analyzed, as well as its role in the power rhetoric. The articulation with coeval theoretical debates and external models will be used to understand in which level the Spanish experience contributes to the international architectural culture and the regional process

Paolo Marcolin, 2018. “The settlements design of the Boalhosa’s agricultural colony. A dialectical perspective: between tradition and the construction of modernity
in Regionalism, Nationalism & Modern Architecture. Proceedings. Edited by Jorge Cunha Pimentel, Alexandra Trevisan and Alexandra Cardoso. Porto: CEAA: 190-201. http://hdl.handle.net/10400.26/24578

The design of the settlement in the Agricultural Colony of Boalhosa results from an understanding that privileges compact solutions, making the most of the conditions of the topography and respecting the morphology of the natural landscape. In turn, the architectures associated with this design were designed taking advantage of these conditions, considering them as a fundamental data of the preexistence. However, this understanding did not fail to concern itself with the principles of modern architecture, thus seeking solutions capable of establishing a relationship of continuity between tradition and innovation, between the roots of the vernacular and the paradigm of the modern. By valuing the site’s specificities and exploring new technical possibilities, this search adopts a strategy that is typical of Critical Regionalism, to mediate the impact of universal civilization with elements derived indirectly from the peculiarities of a particular place (Frampton, 1983). Not excluding possible relationships with notable examples of the movements Garden City and City Beautiful, in the urban and architectural solution seems to prevail, above all, an attitude of adaptation to the place and agreement with the materials and language of the region.

Emanuela Margione, 2018. “Italian Modern Architecture Between Rurality and Monumentality. The case study of the Italian New Towns as an experimental territory for the Modern Movement in Italy
in Regionalism, Nationalism & Modern Architecture. Proceedings. Edited by Jorge Cunha Pimentel, Alexandra Trevisan and Alexandra Cardoso. Porto: CEAA: 202-220. http://hdl.handle.net/10400.26/24582

During the 30’s, the Fascist Party achieves its most significant territorial project: the reclamation of the Pontine Marshes and the construction of New Towns. In the same years starts the debate between modernity and tradition, that will characterize the whole history of modern Italian architecture, and the Fascist party obtains its highest approval trying to breathe life into a new Italian society full of new behaviours. This opens a new parenthesis within the debate of modern Italian architecture that not only has to find its own definition but must also be translated as State’s art. In this scenario, the founding cities of the Agro Pontino became the experimental territory for the Italian architects of the Modern era. The pivotal architect of the New Towns was Oriolo Frezzotti, chosen directly by Mussolini to build in 1932 the first new town, Latina, with a rural character and then in 1935, Pontinia where the architect abandoned the vernacular style to leave space to pure geometric shapes. So Frezzotti, in just two years, changed his language almost drastically, abandoning the architectural forms linked to the traditional rural style and approaching the “horizontal lines”, symbol of architecture for human, and the “vertical lines” symbol of dictatorial monumentalism (Zevi 1950, 167) that will characterize the modern Italian architecture. To give the impetus for this transformation was the experience that Frezzotti made in 1934 collaborating on the project for Sabaudia known as the city of Italian rationalism. In light of this, this paper intends to analyse these urban artefacts understood as a tool capable of returning a material history of modern Italian architecture. So, through the urban and architectural analysis of the New towns, so through the study of the debate between rurality and monumentality, this paper intends to give a generic picture of modern Italian architecture.

Marta Lalanda Prista, 2018. “Tradition and modernity in the Portuguese Inner Colonisation: the laboratorial case of Pegões
in Regionalism, Nationalism & Modern Architecture. Proceedings. Edited by Jorge Cunha Pimentel, Alexandra Trevisan and Alexandra Cardoso. Porto: CEAA: 342-355. http://hdl.handle.net/10400.26/24580

The intertwining of tradition and modernity is a rooted discussion within the Portuguese history of architecture since the mid-twentieth century. From then on, the dichotomisation of erudite and vernacular architectures, urban and rural cultures and settings, nationalist and universalistic values, seems to have been debated and reviewed. This paper aims to contribute to such de-essentialisation processes by focusing on the Portuguese Estado Novo project of inner colonisation conducted by the Junta de Colonização Interna (1936-1974), and examining the dialogues and frictions between its traditional and modern ideals and accomplishments as spatialised in one very particular colony – Pegões. On the one hand, the paper ponders upon the Portuguese colonisation’s neo-physiocratic basis, locating the tradition-modernity binomial in the intent to modernise the agrarian world while perpetuating its traditional lifestyle, simultaneously fostering an economic development, social control and national identity. On the other hand, the paper draws upon the laboratorial colony of Pegões, which was the first, the biggest and the only one built in Southern Portugal, to more thickly analyse the colonisation’s politics and fulfilments, and its understanding and uses of traditional and modernist ideals, aesthetics and representations. Special attention is given to the dialectics between political and economic agencies, social negotiations, embodied experiences, and meanings and affections, by looking into the official-written history of the colony and emotional-sensory memory of its settlers. This approach results from the work carried out within the scope of MODSCAPES research project (funded by HERA Uses of the Past), notably in what concerns its research line on the memories and perceptions of European colonisation policies, schemes and resulting landscapes.